Scientists of the Christian Faith -- Alphabetical Index (G)



Domenico Gagliardi *** Not in Gale

(c. 1660-c. 1725).  Italian anatomist, physician, microscopist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Gagliardi's name is especially connected with anatomy, particularly the skeletal system, which he summarized in Anatomes ossium novis inventis illustrata (1689). The book contains the first description of a case of what was presumably tuberculosis of the bone. He carried out morphological and microscopic investigations on human bones, using chemical reagents in order to bring out the fine structure.

In 1720 he did a close study of the pneumonia epidemic raging in Rome. His study was anatomicopathological in approach and based on carefully conducted autopsies. The study led to his Relazione de' male di petto, 1720.

He also published other medical works.

He was a member of the Medical College of Rome.


Alan Galbraith, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale

Forest hydrologist.  Watershed scientist, from Colorado State University.

Carl Wieland. "Recovery from Evolution: Scientist sees creation as a 'watershed' issue," chats with Alan Galbraith, or First published in Creation Ex Nihilo 22(2):16-17, March-May 2000.


Galileo Galilei

The Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) is renowned for his epoch-making contributions to astronomy, physics, and scientific philosophy. He was a Tuscan astronomer, philosopher, and physicist who is closely associated with the Scientific Revolution. He has been referred to as the "father of modern astronomy" (a title to which Kepler has perhaps a stronger claim), as the "father of modern physics" and as "father of science". His experimental work is widely considered complementary to the writings of Bacon in establishing the modern scientific method. Galileo was born in Pisa and his career coincided with that of Kepler. He died at Arcetri in 1642 - the year Isaac Newton was born.

J J O'Connor and E F Robertson.  "Galileo Galilei," or

The Galileo Project,

IMSS - History of Science Museum,


Vincenzio Galilei

(1520-1591).  Italian lutenist, composer, music theorist, physicist.  Catholic.  He was the father of the great astronomer Galileo Galilei. A skillful lutenist and violinist, and a student of ancient Greek theory, Vincenzo was a prominent member of the artistic circle meeting at Count Bardi's house known as the Florentine Camerata. His compositions for solo voice with lute accompaniment may be regarded as the starting point of the monody successfully cultivated by Peri, Caccini, etc., the founders of the "opera in musica." A zealous advocate of Grecian simplicity, in contrast with contrapuntal complexity, he published a Dialogo...della musica antica et della moderna (Florence, 1581; to the 2nd ed. [1602] is appended a polemical Discorso...intorno all' opere di messer Gioseffo Zarlino da Chioggia, which had appeared separately in 1589) and Fronimo. Dialogo... (in 2 parts:Venice, 1568 and 1569; new ed., 1584), all of considerable historical interest. Vol. IV of Istituzioni e Monumenti dell' Arte Musicale Italiana (Milan, 1934), ed. by F. Fano, is devoted entirely to Galilei; it contains a large selection of music reprints from his Fronimo. Dialogo... (lute transcriptions by Galilei and original compositions), Libro d'intavolatura di liuto (1584), Il secondo libro de madrigali a 4 et a 5 voci (1587), and a 4-part Cantilena, together with biographical details, list of works, notes about extant MSS, reprints, transcriptions, etc. His Contrapunti a due voci (1584) was edited by Louise Read (Smith College Music Archives, Vol. VIII, 1947).

"Vincenzo Galilei." Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians®, Centennial Edition. Nicolas Slonimsky, Editor Emeritus. Schirmer, 2001.

The Galileo Project, or

His principal theoretical work, Dialogo della musica antica e della moderna, published at Florence in 1581, attacked the prevailing basis of musical theory. In his Discorso (1589) he employed experimental results to show that the traditional association of numbers with particular musical intervals was capricious. The qualities of intervals had to be determined by the ear. He stated the law that a given musical interval between similar strings is produced either by different lengths proportional to the interval, or by tensions that vary as the squares of the intervals when the length stays constant. This was probably the first mathematical law of physics to have been derived by systemetic experimentation.


Jean Gallois /Galloys  *** Not in Gale

(1632-1707).  French geometer and specialist in scientific communication.

The Galileo Project,

Gallois is associated with the famous Journal des scavans. He made the periodical a success, publishing forty- two issues as sole editor, after he took over in 1666.  As an active member of the Académie, he was involved in a number of its publications.

Memberships: Académie Royal des Sciences, 1667-1707.  He temporarily assumed the duties of the perpetual secretary when the secretary was on a diplomatic mission to England in 1667.  With the reoganization of the AR in 1699 he was made pensionary geometer.


Luigi Galvani
(1737-1798). Italian physician and physicist. Lecturer on anatomy at University of Bologna (1768-98); Professor of obstetrics at Instituto delle Scienze, Bologna (1782-98). Made pioneering researches in electrophysiology (from early 1780s), as causing muscular contractions in a frog's legs by application of static electricity; argued in Deviribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius (1791) that animal tissue contains an innate, vital force which he termed "animal electricity"; his theory partly refuted by Alessandro Volta; announced (1794) experiments which established presence of bioelectric forces in animal tissue. Catholic.

"Luigi Galvani,"

Luigi Galvani.


Ray Gambell (OBE) *** Not in Gale

Dr Ray Gambell was formerly Executive Secretary of the International Whaling Commission.

Dr Ray Gambell.  "Conservation of Whales and Dolphins,"

Alex Kirby.  "Whaling Ban Set to End,"

Ray Gambell: "'Whaling - a Christian Position', Science and Christian Belief," Vol 2, No 1, April 1990, 15-24.


Charles O. Gardner / Charles Olda Gardner

(Born 1919).  Plant geneticist and breeder, design consultant, analyst.

Charles O. Gardner, University of Nebraska, Lincoln,

 "Charles O. Gardner, retired professor of agronomy at UNL, will receive the Award of Merit. Donald G. Hanway, retired professor and head of the department of agronomy at UNL, is the Alumnus of the Year.
Gardner earned his bachelor's (1941) and master's (1948) degrees from the University of Nebraska. He graduated from Harvard with an MBA in 1943 and from North Carolina State University with a Ph.D. in biometry in 1951. Gardner's academic career spans more than 30 years at UNL. He started as an agronomy faculty member in 1957, teaching and researching until his retirement as professor emeritus in 1989.
Most widely known for his work in plant breeding and genetics, Gardner is also responsible for the development of the applied biometrics program at UNL. His work has provided a solid research base for growth in the agricultural sciences."

Assistant statistician, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 1951-52; interim head Biometrics Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1988-89; Professor emeritus, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1989; Regents Professor, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1970-89; Professor, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1957-70; Chairman statistics laboratory, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1957-68; Associate Professor, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1952-57; Assistant extension agronomist, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1946-48. Visiting Professor University of Wisconsin, 1962-63; consultant CIMMYT and Rockefeller Foundation, Mexico, Latin American, 1964, consultant, CIBA-GEIGY, Eastern half of U.S., 1983; consultant, Lecturer Dept. Agriculture, Queensland, Australia, 1977; consultant, Lecturer maize program Kasetsart University and Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok, 1990; spl. Lecturer advanced maize breeding course for leaders of national maize programs in developing countries International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement, El Batan, Mexico, 1989, 91, 93.

Member: Fellow American Society of Agronomy (President 1982, agronomic service award, 1988), Crop Science Society of American (President 1975, recipient Crop Science award, 1978, DeKalb-Pfizer Crop Science Distinguished Career award 1984), AAAS (Chairman section O committee 1987); American Genetic Association, Genetic Society of American, Biometric Society (regional committee), Sigma Xi, Gamma Sigma Delta (International Distinguished Service Agriculture 1977).  Elder, Eastridge Presbyterian Church; President Eastridge PTA. Served to Captain, U.S. Army, 1943-46.

Awards: Recipient Outstanding Research and Creativity award University of Nebraska, 1981, USDA Distinguished Service award, 1988, Award of Merit University of Nebraska Alumni Association, 1996.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Guy S. Gardner

(Born 1948). Former astronaut. Pilot. Educator. Gardner earned a B.S. degree with majors in astronautics, mathematics, and engineering sciences from the United States Air Force Academy in 1969 and a M.S. in astronautics from Purdue University in 1970. MA, Virginia Tech., 2000.

Gardner completed U.S. Air Force pilot training at Craig Air Force Base, Alabama, and F-4 upgrade training at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida in 1971. In 1972, he flew 177 combat missions in Southeast Asia while stationed in Uborn, Thailand. In 1973-74, he was an F-4 instructor and operational pilot at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina. He attended the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base California, in 1975, and then served as a test pilot with the 6512th Test Squadron located at Edwards in 1976. In 1977-78, he was an instructor test pilot at the USAF Test Pilot School. In 1979-1980, he was operations officer of the 1st Test Squadron at Clark Air Base, Philippines.

Gardner was selected as a pilot astronaut by NASA in May 1980. During his 11 years as an astronaut, he worked in many areas of Space Shuttle and Space Station development and support. In 1984, he was assigned as pilot on the first Space Shuttle mission to launch from Vandenberg AFB, California. That mission was later canceled. Gardner first flew in space as pilot on the crew of STS-27, aboard the Orbiter Atlantis, on December 2-6, 1988. The mission carried a Department of Defense payload. Gardner next flew as pilot on the crew of STS-35, aboard the Orbiter Columbia, on December 2-10, 1990. The mission carried the ASTRO-1 astronomy laboratory consisting of three ultraviolet telescopes and one x-ray telescope.

Gardner left NASA in June 1991 to command the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California.  In August 1992, Gardner retired from the Air Force and returned to NASA to direct the joint U.S. and Russian Shuttle-Mir Program.  He attended the Defense Systems' Management College in 1994, and then became the Director of the Quality Assurance Division, Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters. In September 1995, Gardner joined the Federal Aviation Administration as Director of the FAA William J. HughesTechnical Center in New Jersey.  Became Associate Administrator for regulation and certification, FAA, Washington, 1996-98.
Honors: Air Force Legion of Merit, 2 Defense Superior Service Medals, Defense Distinguished Service Medal, 3 Air Force Distinguished Flying Crosses, 14 Air Medals, National Intelligence Medal of Achievement, Distinguished Graduate of the USAF Academy, Top Graduate in Pilot Training, and Top Graduate from the USAF Test Pilot School, Test Pilot School Outstanding Academic Instructor, Test Pilot School Outstanding Flying Instructor, and Distinguished Astronaut Engineering Alumnus of Purdue University.

Guy S. Gardner biography,


Colin Garner, BTech, BEng, Ph.D., CEng, MIMechE, MSAE

(Not oncologist Ronald Colin Garner)
Engineer.  Perkins/ Royal Academy of Engineering Professor of Applied Thermodynamics in the Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, UK, 2002-present.  Previously: Reader (1998-2002), Senior Lecturer (1997-1998), Lecturer (1989-1997) and Research Associate (1986-1989) in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Loughborough University. Industrial training: Sponsored by London Regional Transport. Employed in a wide variety of rail and bus engineering departments including engine development (1979-1986). University education: Loughborough University, Bachelor of Technology and Bachelor of Engineering, both First Class Honours Degrees in Mechanical Engineering (1979-1984).

Faculty webpage, The Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,

Elim Church Centre,


Paul Garner, BSc, MIInfSc, FGS *** Not in Gale
Geologist.  Senior Information Scientist, Cambridge Science Park (to 2002).

B.Sc. (Hons) in Geology and Biology and is a Fellow of the Geological Society of London.  He works full-time as a speaker and researcher with Biblical Creation Ministries in the UK.  He is also a Committee Member of the Biblical Creation Society, co-editor of the BCS journal, Origins, and is on the Board of The Genesis Agendum, a charitable company promoting church and public awareness of the substantial historical and scientific evidence supporting the biblical record.

Paul Garner.  "The fossil record of 'early' tetrapods: evidence of a major evolutionary transition?" First published in TJ 17(2):111-117, 2003.


Professor Roberto A. Garza-Lopez

Chemist.  Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Pomona College, Claremont, California, 1998; Assistant Professor Department chemistry, Pomona College, Claremont, California, 1992-98; postdoctoral Associate Department chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, 1991-92. Visiting scholar Department of Chemistry Stanford (California) University, 1996-97.

"I was on sabbatical for the 1996-97 academic year at Standord. I worked in the lab of Professor Zare.I dealt with a technique called "Near-field Optical Microscopy ". For the first time in the history of science we can observe single atoms and molecules. The power to visualize chemical and biochemical phenomena at the molecular level means that we are witnessing the birth of entirely new technologies for observing and manipulating the individual building blocks of matter, a field that has been given the name of 'nanomanufacturing.'"

Faculty webpage at Pomona College:$ViewFacultyMember443

Home page:

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


William Gascoigne *** Not in Gale

(c. 1610-1644).  English astronomer, optician, instrument-maker.

The Galileo Project,

As an observer, Gascoigne found Lansberg's tables in error, and this led him to give serious attention to issues of observational accuracy.  In keeping with his interest in observational instruments, he was said to have a treatise of optics ready for the press, and an essay on optics did survive to be printed by Rigaud.  He contributed greatly to instrumentation. He is asserted to have been the first to make a telescope with two convex lenses. (A telescope, which survives, that he did make in late 1640 was a Galilean type.) He invented methods of grinding glasses. Most important, he developed the first eyepiece micrometer, using a screw to measure the distance between two wires or plates inside the eyepiece, in order to measure small angles with precision. He applied the telescope to the quadrant.


Pierre Gassendi

(1592-1655). French scientist, mathematician, and philosopher. Ordained priest (1615); attempted to reconcile mechanistic atomism with Christian dogma; advocate of empirical method; attacked Aristotelian philosophy and opposed Cartesian philosophy; revived and maintained Epicurean doctrines; friend of Galileo and Kepler.

The Galileo Project,


Karl Friedrich Gauss

The German mathematician Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) made outstanding contributions to both pure and applied mathematics.  Director and Professor of astronomy, Gottingen observatory (from 1807).Demonstrated that a circle can be divided into seventeen equal arcs by elementary geometry (1796); published Disquisitiones arithmeticae on the theory of numbers (1801); propounded method of least squares; devised solution for binomial equations. Developed new technique for calculating orbits of asteroids (1801); made studies in geodesy; invented the heliotrope (1821); introduced the Gaussian error curve. Contributed to non-Euclidean geometry. Developed the related potential theory and real analysis. Made magnetic and electrical researches; considered founder of mathematical theory of electricity; proposed an absolute system of magnetic units. The gauss, a magnetic unit, is named after him. or



Henry Gellibrand

(1597-1636). English mathematician and astronomer. Completed Briggs's Trigonometria Britannica (1633); wrote Epitome of Navigation (pub. 1674).

The Galileo Project,


Reiner [Regner, Regnier] Gemma Frisius *** Not in Gale

(1508-1555).  Belgian astronomer, geographer, cartographer, mathematician, publisher. Catholic. Lunar Crater Gemma Frisius is named in his honor.

The Galileo Project, or

His first original work, Gemma phrysius de principiis astronomiae & cosmographiae, was translated into several languages and reprinted numerous times.  He made two significant contributions to the earth sciences. In a chapter added to the 1533 Antwerp edition of the Cosmographicus, he was first to propose the principle of triangulation as a means of carefully locating places and accurately mapping areas. 20 years later, in the 1553 Antwerp edition of De princinpiis astronomiae, he was the first suggest in explicit terms the use of portable timepieces to measure longitude by lapsed time.

He supported himself publishing his books (1529, 1530) and globes (1531, 1535, 1536) while a student in Louvain. Evidently this was lucrative enough that he married before he recieved his degree.  In 1536, he practiced medicine for a living in Louvain.  Between 1536-1539 he was appointed to the medical faculty at Louvain, a post he retained until his death.

He received a patent with Caspar Vander Heyden [Caspar de Myrica] for a globe in 1531. He produced other globes in 1535 and 1536.  Gemma designed astronomical instruments, mostly sophisticated variations on the astrolabe, such as the "astronomical ring." He also improved the Jacob's staff.  Kish credits Gemma as the first to suggest the use of an accurate timekeeping instrument as a solution to the problem of longitude, and as among the first to propose triangulation for surveying and mapmaking.  Gemma Frisius did a world map with lines of latitude and longitude in 1540.

Connections: Gemma taught Gerard Mercator, and in 1535 employed him as a draftsman for his terrestial globe.

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson. "Regnier Gemma Frisius," "Regnier Gemma Frisius was a native of Friesland, a coastal province in northern Netherlands, which explains why he gave himself the name of Frisius. He was born Regnier Gemma and only adopted the name Frisius when he later became a scholar for, like many scholars from his country, he adopted a Latin version of his name. So Regnier Gemma became Gemma Frisius.

"Gemma's work on astronomical instruments was described in several of his books. For example in De Radio Astronomico (1545) he described his work constructing a cross-staff about 1.5 metres long with one cross piece about 3/4 of a metre in length. It had brass sighting vanes and a sliding vane. He also invented a new astrolabe which he described in De Astrolabio which was published in 1556, after his death.

"Gemma Frisius made many astronomical observations. In particular he recorded comets in July 1533, January 1538 and 30 April 1539. Some of these comet observations are described in works by his son, Cornelius Gemma Frisius, who was born in 1533 and went on to become professor of medicine and astronomy at Louvain."

Cosmographia: A Close Encounter.  On Petrus Apianus' Cosmographia (1533), edited and enlarged by Gemma Frisius, and on cosmography in general.


Anthony Dennis Genovesi

(Born June 20, 1944).  Geneticist, plant tissue culturist.  Cellular geneticist, Dekalb Genetics Corp., Dekalb, Illinois, 1981. Education: B.S., University of Texas-Arlington, 1967; M.S., Texas A&M University, 1975, Ph.D., 1978. Post doctoral fellow University of Kentucky, Lexington, 1978-81.

Member: Society Invitro Biology, International Association Plant Cell Tissue Cultures, American Society Agronomy, Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Sigma, Gamma Sigma Delta. Baptist. Served to Captain U.S. Army, 1967-70.

Co-author several science publications.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Robert V. Gentry

Physicist and chemist, specialist in the geophysical phenomena of radiohalos.  He worked for thirteen years as a visiting scientist in the Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Atomic Energy Commission. He spent several years in the defense industry and in college and university teaching. D.Sc. (honorary) from Columbia Union College; M.S. in Physics from University of Florida; Graduate work at Georgia Institute of Technology.  He has authored or coauthored over 20 research papers in Nature, Science, Applied Physics Letters, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Annual Review of Nuclear Science, etc. Dr. Gentry is a long-time member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Geophysical Union, Research Society of Sigma Xi, the American Physical Society, and the New York Academy of Sciences. For several years he has been listed in Who's Who in America and Who's Who in Science and Engineering. Notably, when he began his research, he was an evolutionist. Today, Dr. Gentry is a fully convinced young earth creation scientist.  For more information about his background, see

Dr. Gentry courageously testified on behalf of creation science when the Arkansas law requiring the teaching of creation along with evolution in public schools was challenged by the ACLU in 1981. Hear radio interviews with Dr.Gentry online at

Author: Creation's Tiny Mystery, "Polonium Halos: Unrefuted Evidence for Earth's Instant Creation!"


Information about his ten scientific papers on cosmology and astrophysics and documentation of censorship, first by Los Alamos and more recently by Cornell University, is available at


Étienne-François Geoffroy / Geoffroy the Elder

(1672-1731). French chemist, pharmacist, physician. Professor at College de France, Paris (1709-31) and Jardin des Plantes (1712-30). In 1718 he advanced the general proposition that if two substances in combination encounter a third with which one of the two has a greater affinity, that one will leave the original combination and unite with the third substance to form a new compound. Geoffroy is known for his table of chemical affinities, Table des differents Rapports observés  en chimie entre differentes substances (1718), a model for many years until invalidated by C. L.Berthollet.  Older brother of Claude Joseph Geoffroy; uncle of Claude-François Geoffroy.

The Galileo Project,

Geoffroy learned from his father, the fourth in a respected dynasty of pharmacists. Such scientists as Wilhelm Homberg, Joblot, Verney, and J.D.Cassini visited his home, giving demonstrations and lectures that supplemented his education. In 1692 he went to Montpellier for a year as a journeyman to learn pharmacy from Pierre Sanche. Apparently the apothecaries Jeoffroy and Sanche traded sons as assistants.  When he was in Montpellier he began to attend courses at the medical school without matriculating. After he retured to Paris in 1694, he became a master apothecary. He later turned to the study of medicine. He earned the bachelor's degree in Paris in 1702, and eventually graduated M.D. at Paris in 1704.

Codex medicamentarium seu pharmacopoeia parisiensis, published by the Faculty of Medicine in 1732, was largely his work. It contained many chemical remedies, in addition to the traditional galenicals.

Member: Royal Society, 1698-1731; Académie Royal des Sciences, 1699-1731 (Director in 1921). (in Hungarian)


John Gerard

(1545-1612). English botanist and barber-surgeon. Became famous for his London garden containing rare plants; superintendent of Burghley's gardens (1577-98). Published a list of plants growing in his own garden (1596) and The Herball, or generall historie of plantes (1597). The genus Gerardia is named for him.

The Galileo Project,


Marcus Gerbezius / Marko Gerbec *** Not in Gale

(1658-1718).  Slovene physician, chemist.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

In chemistry, Gerbezius was concerned with fermentation.  He was city physician in Krain, near Ljubljana and physician to some monasteries.  Named chief physician of province of Carniola (in Slovenia).  Became most sought-after practitioner in Ljubljana.

Member: Academia Leopoldina; formal: 1688 admitted to Academia Leopoldina Naturae Curiosorum; 1701, founding member of Academia Operosorum in Ljubljana (president 1712 -1713).


Carol A. Gersmehl *** Not in Gale

Cartographer.  GIST Specialist.  Carol Gersmehl has been a permanent part-time lecturer in the Geography Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota since 1987 (Initially as Visiting Lecturer; subsequent

contract as Lecturer; then as Instructor; current contract as Visiting Instructor (continuing part-time). She teaches both introductory and advance courses in geographic information systems (GIS) and cartography. In addition, she maintains the Geography Department's GIS teaching lab. 1970-73 Teacher, seventh and eighth grade social studies, language arts, and physical education, Grace Lutheran School, River Forest, IL ; 1973-75 Administrative Assistant, CenSRCH (a computerized census-data retrieval and analysis service used by a consortium of religious denominations), Concordia College, River Forest, IL;1979-82 Research Fellow, Student Life Studies Office (survey research), University of Minnesota; 1983-86 Research assistant, Cartography Laboratory, Geography Department, University of Minnesota; 1985-87 Research assistant, Water Resources Geographic Information System Project (funded by Minnesota Department of Natural Resources), Geography Department, University of Minnesota. B.A. in Education, Concordia Teachers College, River Forest, IL, 1967; M.A. in Sociology, University of Georgia, 1970; A.B.D. in Geography. University of Minnesota, 1987.

Member: General geography: AAG - Association of American Geographers; Cartography and GIS: ACSM - American Congress on Surveying and Mapping; CCA - Canadian Cartographic Association; NACIS - North American Cartographic Information Society; Geographic education: NCGE - National Council for Geographic Education (in 2000, elected to publications and products committee); MAGE - Minnesota Alliance for Geographic Education.

Author of numerous publications.  See Curriculum Vita - January 2003

Faculty webpage, Geography Department, Macalester College., St. Paul, Minnesota.


Philip J. Gersmehl *** Not in Gale

(Born 1945).  Gersmehl is a University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, geography professor whose work spills over into economics, sociology, history and probably a few other fields. He travels extensively throughout the country, sometimes as a consultant for governmental agencies involved with economic development. While still a graduate student at the University of Georgia, he did research on industrial development in rural areas of the South. B.A., Concordia Teachers College, 1966; Ph.D., University of Georgia, 1970.
Faculty webpage, Department of Geography, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,  ARGUS was developed at the University of Minnesota, under the direction of Dr. Philip Gersmehl and with the assistance of a large number of academic geographers and geography educators. Funded by the National Science Foundation (MDR-9150115; ESI 9452794), the US-Japan Foundation, and the Japan Foundation's Center for Global Partnership, ARGUS is a non-profit project designed to offer high quality teaching materials at the lowest possible cost.

Testimony in Professors Who Believe: The Spiritual Journeys of Christian Faculty, edited by Paul M. Anderson.  InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1998. ISBN 0-8308-1599-6.


Charles M. Geschke

(Born September 11, 1939 in Cleveland, Ohio, United States).  Computer company executive.  Dr. Charles M. Geschke co-founded Adobe Systems, Inc. in 1982 with John Warnock. He served as co-chairman of the board and president of the company until 2000, when he retired as president. He retains his position as co-chair. Geschke and Warnock created a billion-dollar software business based on a handful of highly innovative and successful products, including Adobe Acrobat, PhotoShop, and PageMaker.  Achievements include research in programming languages; machine design for efficient emulation of higher level languages; computer imaging and graphics.  Co-Chairman Board, Adobe Systems Inc., Mountain View, 2000; president, Chairman Board, Adobe Systems Inc., Mountain View, California, 1987-2000; co-founder, Adobe Systems Inc., Mountain View, California, 1982; manager Imaging Science Lab., Palo Alto Research Center, Xerox Corp., 1980-1987; research scientist computer science LAB., Palo Alto Research Center, Xerox Corp., 1972-1980; Instructor of  Mathematics, John Carroll University, 1963-1968. Board of Directors, Rambus, Inc.; computer science advisory Board Carnegie-Mellon University, Princeton University; Member Govt.-Univ. Industry Research Roundtable NAS.  Education: AB, Xavier University, 1962; MS, Xavier University, 1963; Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University, 1972.

Member: NAE, IEEE (hon.), Mathematics Association America, Association Computer Mathematics.  Board govs. San Francisco Symphony; Board trustees University San Francisco.

Honors: Named 7th most influential graphics person of last millennium, Graphic Exch. Magazine, 2000; recipient award, Association Computing Machinery, National Computer Graphics Association, Rochester Institute of Technology.
Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Joanne Griffith Domingue.  "Turning to God 'First response, not last resort,' Geschkes tell breakfast gathering," Los Altos Town Crier, 04/06/1998.  "Last Friday 480 people sat riveted at the fourth annual Los Altos Community Prayer Breakfast at Hyatt Rickeys in Palo Alto as the Geschkes shared how prayer sustained them when Chuck was kidnapped at gunpoint in May 1992.

'We consider this a testimony to how important we consider prayer in our everyday life,' Nan said. For them, 'Turning to God is not a last resort but a first response.'" The Geschkes' story was told in a multi-part series in the Town Crier Oct. 15-Nov. 5, 1997.

Bruce Barton / Town Crier Staff Writer.  "Changing the world through innovation, excellence and ethics

Nan and Chuck Geschke are Town Crier's 2003 Los Altans of the Year," published on January 7, 2004,  "… in May 1992 when Chuck was kidnapped for four days, the details relived in a 1997 three-part Town Crier series. Lifelong Roman Catholics, the Geschkes used their faith in God and in each other to get through the ordeal. Chuck was rescued and the kidnappers prosecuted."

JON FORTT, Mercury News Staff Writer.  "Leaving with a strong image;Geschke retires from Adobe as one who helped revolutionize graphics and publishing industries,"  2000-03-27 11:52:10 PST.


Konrad Gesner / Konrad Gessner

(1516-1565). Swiss physician and naturalist. Practiced medicine in Zurich (from 1541), city physician (1554). Provided checklist of 1800 European authors in Bibliotheca universalis (1545), first bibliography of its kind; surveyed world knowledge in Pandectarumsive partitionum universalium (1548). His compendium of recorded knowledge of animal life, Historiae animalium (1551-87), considered basis of modern zoology. Also one of first to write about mountaineering.

The Galileo Project,


Dr. Yvette Getch / Yvette Qualls Getch *** Not in Gale

Psychologist.  Associate Professor, Department of Counseling and Human Development Services at The University of Georgia (2002-present). Assistant Professor, Rehabilitation Counseling Program, Department of Counseling and Human Development Services, The University of Georgia, 1996-2002; Visiting Instructor, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, 1995-1996; Teaching Assistant/Instructor, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The University of Arkansas, 1993-1995. Certified Rehabilitation Counselor #32327.

Faculty webpage, Counseling & Human Development, College of Education, University of Georgia,

She received her Ph.D. from The University of Arkansas in 1996 in Rehabilitation Education and Research and a M.Ed. in Independing Living Counseling specializing in the area of deafness in 1990. Dr. Getch received a B.S. degree in Social Work from the Florida State University in 1986. She is a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor and has previously worked as a program coordinator for the ARC, an interpreter, and a transition counselor for persons who are deaf.

Dr. Getch conducts research in the areas of advocacy for persons with disabilities, sexuality and deafness, advocacy issues and accommodations for children with chronic illness in schools, and teacher education in asthma management. Dr. Getch was recently selected to serve on a national expert panel for Caregiving and Individuals with Disabilities for the Rosalyn Carter Institute for Human Development. She frequently provides education for parents of children with chronic medical conditions through her work with the MAGIC Foundation and other organizations that support children with chronic illness and their families. Dr. Getch is committed to improving the lives of all children and is involved in advocacy initiatives that promote access, health, and educational opportunities for children with disabilities and/or chronic illness.

Faculty Vitae for NCATE Evaluation,

Member: The Georgia Rehabilitation Association, American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association,
American Counseling Association, American Rehabilitation Counseling Association, Council for Exceptional Children, American Association on Mental Retardation, The American Educational Research Association, The National Rehabilitation Association, Association for Counselor Education and Supervision.


Marino Ghetaldi / Marino Ghettaldi *** Not in Gale

(c. 1566-c. 1627).  Yugoslav-born mathematician, physicist, optician.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

Ghetaldi produced a pamphlet with the solutions of 42 geometrical problems, Variorum problematum colletio, in 1607. The method used in some of the solutions suggests that he was alreasy applying methods of algebra to geometry.  His other publications were studies on Archimedes and on Apollonius.  He did experimental work on the specific gravity of solids and liquids.  He apparently experimented with burning glasses. From 1603 he held various public and legal positions in Ragusa.


Luca Ghini *** Not in Gale

(c. 1490-1556).  Italian botanist, pharmacologist, physician, natural historian, instrument-maker.  Catholic.

The Galileo Project,

The pioneer in the creation of the first botanical gardens (in Pisa in 1543 and, after a second was created in Padua, in Florence in 1545) in the 16th century and in the collection of the earliest herbaria (both of which explicitly served the ends of pharmacology), Ghini exerted his influence primarily through correspondence and teaching. His only published works--and those long after his death--were minor medical tracts. Much more important is the letter to Mattioli, published as I placiti di Luca Ghini intorno a piante descritte nei commentarii al Dioscoride di P.A.Mattioli.

Ghini also collected in natural history in general--minerals and animals.

He was actively involved in the creation of botanical gardens at Pisa and at Florence. He introduced, probably for the first time, the herbarium or hortus siccus, the technique of pressing and drying plants. Although there is obvious ambiguity, the technique of drying seems essentially identical to the creation of a new instrument.


Denis Dunbar Gibbs, B.A., D.M. F.R.C.P.

(Born 1927)  English physician, an Oxford-educated gastroenterologist and medical historian, has served several decades as a consulting physician at The Royal London Hospital in Whitechapel, having previously served the North Birmingham Hospitals. In addition to an extensive career in gastroenterology, a practice that previously brought him to America as a Fellow in Boston, Gibbs has devoted innumerable hours around the globe with many medical colleagues advocating the study of medicine's lengthy and important heritage. He has written extensively on the history of his own specialty, various medical eponyms and disease entities, as well as on a number of key figures known by people in many walks of life including Baron Munchausen and Sir Frederick Treves. His medical history forays have resulted in a number of official appointments including presidency of the History of Medicine Section of the Royal Society of Medicine (London), Apothecaries Lecturer in the History of Medicine (The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries, London), and the position which he currently holds, President of the British Society of the History of Medicine. Early in his medical career, Gibbs was based in Lichfield, England, a city in England's West Midlands County of Staffordshire known for its association with luminaries in literature, industrialization and medicine. Notable among these individuals were essayist and dictionary author Samuel Johnson, potter Josiah Wedgewood, polymath Erasmus Darwin, physician William Withering, educator and chemist Joseph Priestley, and engineers James Watt and Matthew Boulton.  



Josiah Willard Gibbs

Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903) was an American mathematical physicist whose pioneer work in statistical mechanics laid the basis for the development of physical chemistry as a science.


Paul Giem *** Not in Gale

Medical Research Radiometric Dating, Geochronologist.  Practicing emergency medicine in various southern California hospitals, at present including Loma Linda University Community Medical Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, and Century City Hospital, 1980-present.  Studied Near Eastern Languages and Literature at the University of Chicago, 1981; Research Associate with John Leonora, Ph.D., studying parotid hormone, 1980; Ran aldosterone radioimmunoassay laboratory at Loma Linda University, 1973-1974.

Paul Giem, M.A., M.D., Loma Linda, California, "CARBON-14 CONTENT OF FOSSIL CARBON,"

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Sir Joseph Henry Gilbert

(1817-1901). English chemist. Collaborated with John Bennet Lawesin experiments at Rothamsted (1843-1900); Professor of rural economy at Oxford (1884-90). Known for studies of nitrogen fertilizers and their effects on crops.


William Gilbert / William Gilberd *** Not in Gale

(1544-1603).  English scientist, physician, pharmacologist, instrument-maker, expert on magnetism, electricity, navigation and natural philosophy.  Anglican.

The Galileo Project,

Education: St. John College, Cambridge, 1558-69 or 70; B.A., 1561; M.A., 1564; M.D., 1569.

De magnete, 1600, is the enduring basis of Gilbert's fame.  Posthumously, De mundo nostro sublunari philosophia nova was published in 1651. This is really two works put together as one from Gilbert's manuscripts by Gilbert's half brother; he himself never intended them as parts of one book. More than De magnete, the two treatises that make up De mundo strove toward a general natural philosophy.

At Cambridge he became a Junior Fellow of St. Johns in 1561. He was the mathematics examiner in the college, 1565-6 and bursar, 1569-70. He became a Senior Fellow in 1569.

Medical practice, from perhaps 1577 to 1603. He was one of the prominent physicians in London, consulted among others by the aristocracy.  Toward the end of his life, Gilbert became one of the personal physicians to Elizabeth I, 1600-03. Physician to James I, 1603.

Gilbert participated in the compilation of the College of Physicians' Pharmacopoeia.

He specifically proposed the use of magnetic declination and dip to determine longitude and latitude. Thomas Blundevelle describes the two instruments of Gilbert's invention intended for these purposes: The Versorium for magnetic investigations, and a similar device for electrical.

Membership: Medical College; Informal Connections: He knew Thomas Wright and William Barlowe.

Royal College of Physicians, before 1581; Censor, 1581, 1582, 1584-87, 1589-90; Treasurer, 1587-94, 1597-99; Elector, 1596-97; Consilarius, 1597-9; President, 1600.


Dr. Peter M. W. Gill *** Not in Gale
Professor of Chemistry, University of Nottingham
Nottingham, England

Staff in the School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham:


Professor Peter Gill obtained his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from the University of Auckland having studied Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. He then moved to the Australian National University where he worked with Prof Leo Radom on the development of theoretical models of hemi-bonded and dicationic systems. In 1988, he was awarded a Ph.D. and took up a postdoctoral position at Carnegie Mellon University working with Professor John Pople (who later shared the 1998 Nobel Prize for Chemistry). He became a Lecturer at Massey University in 1993, a Lecturer at the University of Cambridge in 1996 and Professor of Theoretical Chemistry at Nottingham in 1999. He was awarded the 1999 Dirac Medal of the World Association of Theoretically Oriented Chemists (WATOC).

Professor Gill is also the president of Q-Chem Inc., a company in the US that develops and disseminates a software package, Q-Chem, that performs sophisticated molecular orbital calculations.

Peter M. W. Gill.  "Obituary : Density Functional Theory, 1927-1993,"

Recommends Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? by Henry F. Schaefer III.  The Apollos Trust, Watkinsville, GA, 2003. ISBN 0-9742-975-0X.


Horace Wadsworth Gillett

(1883-1950).  Metallurgist. Horace Gillett worked with alloy steels, foundry problems, and heat treatment, and also studied metal fatigue, an important factor in aircraft structures. His pioneering study of the "creep" of metals, their gradual deformation and failure under stress at high temperatures, played a role in future space technology. Gillett developed an interest in chemistry while a student at Cornell University. After graduating with the B.A. degree in 1906, he spent the summer in the laboratory of the inventor Thomas A. Edison, who commended his analytical skill, and then returned to Cornell as a graduate student and instructor in physical chemistry and electro-chemistry. In subsequent summers and vacations he worked for the industrial research firm of Arthur D. Little. Gillett received the Ph.D. in chemistry in 1910.

For the next two years Gillett was manager of the research department of the Aluminum Castings Company, Detroit, Michigan In 1912 he moved to the U. S. Bureau of Mines as chief alloy chemist in charge of the field station at Ithaca, N.Y., a post he occupied until 1924. It was during this period that Gillett's main interest turned from chemistry to metallurgy. His work at the bureau led to the development of the rocking arc electric furnace for melting brass and other metals, a development for which he received, in 1915, the first of his thirteen patents. Gillett moved to the Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C., in 1924 as chief of the Division of Metallurgy, where his reputation continued to grow.

In 1929 Gillett was chosen as the first director of the new Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, Ohio. Gillett determined that the Battelle Institute should concentrate on metallurgical research and-though his own interests and knowledge covered every aspect of metallurgy-on "practical" applications rather than abstract theory. He retired from the Battelle Institute in 1949 but remained a consultant until his death.

Honors include the McFadden Gold Medal of the American Foundrymen's Society.

Author: six books and over two hundred articles covering nearly every phase of the practice of metallurgy. He was one of the founders in 1929 of the magazine Metals and Alloys and served as its editorial director until 1943.

Excerpted from James A. Mulholland. "Horace Wadsworth Gillett."Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement 4: 1946-1950. American Council of Learned Societies, 1974.


Owen Gingerich

(Born 1930).  Professor of Astronomy and the History of Science at Harvard. George Darwin Lecturer., Royal Astron. Society, 1971; Sigma Xi National Lecturer., 1971; research Professor, Harvard University, 2000; Chairman history of Science Department, Harvard University, 1992-93; Professor, Harvard University, 1969-2000; from Lecturer to Associate Professor astronomy and history of Science, Harvard University, 1960-69; senior astronomer, Smithsonian Astrophys. Obs., 1987-2000; astrophysicist, Smithsonian Astrophysics Observatory, 1961-87; Lecturer astronomy, Wellesley College, 1958-59; from Instructor to Assistant Professor, American University, 1955-58; Director obs., American University, Beirut, 1955-58. Contributor to Encyclopaedia Britannica, Collier's Encyclopedia, and Encyclopedia Americana; Associate editor for science, medicine, and technology, Dictionary of American History (supplement), Macmillan (New York City), 1994.  Achievements include research and publications on model stellar atmospheres (to 1971) and in history of astronomy. John F. Lewis Prize, American Philosophical Society, 1976, for paper "From Copernicus to Kepler: Heliocentrism as Model and as Reality"; Physical and Earth Sciences Prize, Professional and Scholarly Publishing Division of Association of American Publishers, 1979, for A Source Book in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1900-1975; Order of Merit, Commander Class, People's Republic of Poland, 1981; the International Astronomical Union has named Asteroid 2658 "Gingerich" in his honor.

Faculty webpage, Harvard:

Owen Gingerich.  "Library as Laboratory: From Facts to History,"

Dan Falk.  "Harvard Professor Owen Gingerich Sees Religious Roots of Astronomy,"  Gingerich: "If God is in fact all-powerful, there's no reason why this all-powerful force in the universe could not represent itself and relate to the self-conscious human beings, in some fashion, through communication with human beings. And how do you communicate? Through prophets of all ages, through personality. So I don't find it entirely strange to think of the idea of a personal God, and at the same time be a scientist looking at these physical laws, in their beauty, in their aesthetic appeal …"

Stephen C. Meyer.  "Owen Gingerich,"  Access Research Network.  Biography reprinted from Eternity, May 1986

Sean Scheiderer.  "Owen Gingerich: "Dare a Scientist Believe in Design?"

History that Matters.

Owen Gingerich.  "Truth in Science,"

Testimony in God and the Scientists, edited by Mike Poole.  CPO, Worthing, 1997.  ISBN 1-901796-02-7.


Albert Girard

(c. 1595-1632).  French mathematician, trigonomist.  Albert Girard contributed to the fields of trigonometry, geometry, arithmetic, and algebra. Girard incorporated the use of the supplementary triangle in spherical trigonometry and simplified the concept of the plane polygon in geometry by defining three types of quadrilaterals, 11 types of pentagons, and 69 of 70 types of hexagons. He also developed a formula for determining the proper construction of two quadrilaterals with the sides of a convex quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. Girard was also the first mathematician to publicly state that the area of a spherical triangle is proportional to its spherical excess. In addition, Girard was the first mathematician to determine the geometric significance of negative numbers. In the area of arithmetic, Girard determined the whole numbers that are the sums of two squares and revealed that certain numbers that cannot be decomposed into three squares can be decomposed into four squares. In algebra and the theory of numbers, he followed in the footsteps of François Viète, using his forerunners' "specious logistic" but referring to it as "literal algebra." He developed a clear rule for the extraction of the cube root of binomials, improving on a previous rule established by Rafaello Bombelli. Girard's rule was subsequently improved by René Descartes in 1640.

Girard also translated many significant mathematical texts, including Henry Hondius' 1625 treatise on fortifications from Flemish to French, and the works of Samuel Marolois and Simon Stevin. In addition, Girard developed a simplified version for demarking the cube root, which is still in use today.

Author: Tables des sinus, tangentes, et sécantes selon le raid de 100,000 parties,1626, 1627; revised edition 1629; Invention nouvelle en l'algèbre,1629, 1884.

Excerpted from "Albert Girard." Notable Mathematicians. Gale Research, 1998.

The Galileo Project,


Ing. Werner Gitt *** Not in Gale

(Born 1937). Information Scientist.  The retired Dr. Gitt was a Director and Professor at the German Federal Institute of Physics and Technology (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig), the Head of the Department of Information Technology. In 1963 he enrolled at the Technical university in Hanover (Technische Hochschule Hanover) and in 1968 he completed his studies as Diplom Ingenieur. Thereafter he worked as Assistant at the Institute of Control Engineering at the Technical University Aachen (Technische Hochschule Aachen). Following two years research work, he received his doctorate summa cum laude together with the prestigious "Borchers-Medal" of the Technical University Aachen in1970.

Three prerequisites must be fulfilled in order for the German Ministerium to award the title 'Director and Professor' at a German research institute, on the recommendation of the Praesidium. The person concerned must be:

(1. A scientist. i.e. it is most definitely an academic title.

(2. One who has published a significant number of original research papers in the technical literature.

(3. Must head a department in his area of expertise, in which several working scientists are employed.

In September and October 2000, Dr Gitt and Ken Ham had a number of successful meetings - see University students 'Gitt' real science!.

Author: Did God Use Evolution?, If Animals Could Talk, In the Beginning was Information, Stars and their Purpose: Signposts in Space, et. Al.  Dr. Gitt has written numerous scientific papers in the fields of information science, mathematics, and control engineering. Some of his works have been translated into Bulgarian, Czech, Finnish, French, Hungarian, Italian, Croatian, Kirghizian, Polish, Rumanian and Russian.

Since 1984 he has been a regular guest at the State independent Theological University of Basle, Switzerland on the subject of 'The Bible and Science'. He has held lectures on related topics at numerous universities at home and abroad, as well as having spoken on the topic Faith and Science in a number of different countries (e.g. Australia, Austria, Belgium, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Lithuania, Namibia, Norway, Rumania, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland).  In October 1999, he led a series of meetings in Bielefeld, Germany. His topics included 'After death - what then?' 'The wonder of the Bible', and 'What creation teaches us'. Fifty-one people made first-time professions of faith in Christ.


Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


David Roger Given

(Born 1943).  New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, research scientist, 1965-92, herbarium keeper, 1974-87.

Web page, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand:


James Glaisher

(1809-1903). Meteorologist, Balloonist.

Established Meteorological Society, 1850; best-known work: Travels in the Air, 1867.


Christopher Glaser

(1615-1672). Swiss chemist, iatrochemist, pharmacologist.  Opened apothecary shop in Paris (c.1662); apothecary to Louis XIV of France; credited with discovery of potassium sulfate. Wrote textbook Traite de la chymie (1663).

The Galileo Project,


Johann Heinrich Glaser *** Not in Gale

(1629-1679).  Swiss anatomist, physician.

The Galileo Project,

In 1662, Glaser established a medical practice that soon brought him international fame.  In 1665, he became full professor of Greek.  In 1667, he was named Professor of anatomy and botany at the Faculté de Médecine at Basel.  He was named Doctor-in-chief at a large municipal hospital in Basel.


Johann Rudolf Glauber

(1604-1668). German chemist, apothecary, alchemist.  Resident in Amsterdam (from 1655). Probably first to distill coal and obtain benzene and phenol; investigated decomposition of common salt through action of acids and bases. Glauber's salt is named after him.

Some of Glauber's principal works include Philosophical Furnaces; Commentary on Paracelsus; Heaven of the Philosophers, or Book of Vexation; Miraculum Mundi; The Prosperity of Germany; and Book of Fires.

The Galileo Project,


John Glenn / John Herschel Glenn, Jr.

(Born 1921).  Former U.S. senator, astronaut. First American to orbit Earth, Feb 20, 1962; became oldest person in space, Oct 29, 1998; Democrat senator from OH, 1974-99.

Member-at-large, Ohio State Democratic Committee, 1999; U.S. senator from Ohio, 1975-99; President, Royal Crown International; V.p. corp. development and Director, Royal Crown Cola Co., 1966-74; retired as colonel, 1965; pilot, Mercury-Atlas 6, 1st orbital space flight launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, Feb. 1962; astronaut, Project Mercury, Manned Spacecraft Center NASA, 1959-65; project officer fighter design br. Navy Bureau. Aero., Washington, 1956-58; with Marine Fighter Squadron 311, exchange pilot, 25th Fighter Interceptor Squadron USAF, Korea, 1953; Assistant, G-2G-3 Amphibious Warfare School, Quantico, Virginia, 1951; flight instructor advanced flight training, Corpus Christi, 1949-51; with, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, North China Patrol, also Guam, 1947-48; assigned 9th Marine Aircraft Wing, USMC, 1945-46; assigned 4th Marine Aircraft Wing, Marshall Islands campaign, USMC, 1944; Commd. 2d Lieutenant, USMC, 1943.

Education: Student, Muskingum College, 1939-42; B.Sc., Muskingum College, 1962; naval, University Iowa, 1942; graduate, Naval Air Training Center, Corpus Christi, Texas., 1943; graduate, Navy Test Pilot Training School, Patuxent River, Maryland, 1954. In Project Bullet, a test Glenn conceived himself, he flew a Crusader coast to coast, making the first transcontinental supersonic flight in a record time of three hours and twenty- three minutes on July 16, 1957.

Member: Society Experimental Test Pilots, International Academy of Astronautics (Honorary.).

Honors: Awarded six Distinguished Flying Crosses, eighteen Air Medals, and other decorations, recipient Astronaut medal USMC, Navy unit commendation, Korean Presidential Unit Citation, Distinguished Merit award Muskingum College, Medal of Honor N.Y.C., Congressional Space Medal of Honor, 1978, Centennial Award, National Geographic Society, 1988; other decorations, awards and honorary doctorates in engineering by four universities.

Author: (With others) We Seven, by the Astronauts Themselves: M. Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper, John H. Glenn, Virgil I. Grissom, Walter M. Schirra, Alan B. Shepard, Donald K. Slayton, Simon & Schuster (New York), 1962.; (Compiler) Letters to John Glenn: With Comments by J. H. Glenn Jr., World Book Encyclopedia Science Service, 1964; South Pacific Regional Overview and Solomon Islands Independence Ceremonies: A Trip Report, U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, DC), 1978;

(With Barry E. Carter and Robert W. Komer) Rethinking Defense and Conventional Forces, introduction by Warren Christopher, Center for National Policy (Washington, DC), 1983; Persian Gulf: Report to the Majority Leader, United States Senate, from Senator John Glenn and Senator John Warner on Their Trip to the Persian Gulf, May 27-June 4, 1987, U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, DC), 1987.

(With Nick Taylor) John Glenn: A Memoir, Bantam Books (New York City), 1999.

Biographical dictionary of the U.S. Congress.

Astronaut Bio: John Glenn, Jr . or

The John Glenn Institute for Public Service & Public Policy.

NASA Glenn Research Center.

John Glenn - Space Pioneer, Return to Orbit



Francis Glisson *** Not in Gale

(c. 1597-1677).  English physician, anatomist, physiologist, embryologist, natural philosopher.

The Galileo Project,

Glisson was educated at Cambridge University, Gonville and Caius College, 1617-34; B.A., 1621; M.A., 1624; incorporated M.A. at Oxford, 1627; M.D., 1634.  He wrote De rachitide, 1650, a classic on rickets.  Anatomia hepatis, 1654, contains, inter alia, the description of Glisson's capsule.  Tractatus de natura substantiae energetica, 1672, expounds a theory of natural philosophy that all bodies have life.  Tractatis de ventriculo et intestines, 1677, contains a physiological theory based on a succus nutritus distributed by the nerves, and psychic spirits that the succus carries. It asserts the existence of a general property of irritability in all living parts of the body. It is also a general work on the anatomy and pysiology of digestion. This work also discusses embryogenesis.

Memberships: Royal Society, 1660-77; Royal College of Physicians, 1635-77; Reader in Anatomy, 1639; Gulstonian lecturer, 1640; Councilor, 1666; President, 1667-9; Medical College.  Informal Connections: Glisson was one of the group in the so-called Invisible College, the original gathering in London during the 40s seen as the beginning of the Royal Society. Friendship with Wharton and George Ent. Association with G. Bate and A. Regemorte.


Dmitri V. Gnatenko / Dmitri Vitalievich Gnatenko

(Born March 8, 1964 in Kiev, Ukraine, came to U.S., 1993.).  Molecular biologist, researcher.  Instructor of medicine.  Achievements include characterization of truncated form of bovine Tyrosyl+ENA sunthetase and generation of several vectors for human gene therapy. Research scientist, SUNY, Stony Brook, 1999; postdoctoral Research Associate, SUNY, Stony Brook, 1993-99; Research Associate, Institute Molecular Biology & Genetics, Kiev, 1989-93; Junior Research Associate, Institute Molecular Biology & Genetics, Kiev, Ukraine, 1986-89. Lecturer molecular biology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Kiev State University, 1992-93.  Education: M, Kiev State University, Ukraine, 1986; Ph.D., Institute of Molecular Biology & Genetics, Kiev, Ukraine, 1991.

"My research interests are focused on the development and characterization of novel viral systems for gene delivery and expression.  Hemophilia A is a primary target for the delivery systems we are working on, although in parallel we develop model vectors expressing genes of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and Neomycin resistance gene (Neo). These model vectors can be used in many areas of gene therapy studies both in vitro and in vivo, addressing fundamental questions such as transduction efficiency, integration of a transgene and others."

Member: American Society Hematology, Ukranian Biochemical Society.  Russian Orthox Church Member.

Honors: Grantee Wellcome Trust, London, 1992, Soros Foundation, Kiev, 1993; recipient Henry Christian award, American Fen. Clin. Research, Washington, 1996, Trainee investigator award AAP, ASCI ASFR, Washington.

Contributor of articles to Journal Investigative Medicine, Journal Vascular Surgery, Ukranian Journal Biochemistry, British Journal Haematology.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Joannes Goedaert *** Not in Gale

(1617-1668).  Dutch entomologist.

The Galileo Project,

Goedaert was the first to write on the insects of the Netherlands, based on first hand observation, following the life cycles of insects. Published in Metamorphosis naturalis, 3 vols. (1662- 9).


Guillermo Gonzalez, Ph.D. *** Not in Gale

(Born 1944?).  Astrophysicist. Guillermo Gonzalez is currently an Assistant Research Professor of Astronomy at Iowa State University, formerly Research Assistant Professor at the University Washington (1996).  He received his Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1993 from the University of Washington. He has done post-doctoral work at the University of Texas, Austin and at the University of Washington and has received fellowships, grants and awards from such institutions as NASA, the University of Washington, Sigma Xi (scientific research society) and the National Science Foundation.

Dr. Gonzalez has extensive experience in observing and analyzing data from ground-based observatories, including work at McDonald Observatory, Apache Point Observatory and Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory.

Author (with Jay Richards), The Privileged Planet: How Our Place in the Cosmos Is Designed for Discovery, March 2004.  He has also published over sixty articles in refereed astronomy and astrophysical journals including Astronomy and Astrophysics, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Astrophysical Journal and Solar Physics. His current research interest in astrobiology focuses on the "Galactic Habitable Zone" and captured the October 2001 cover story of Scientific American.

Dr. Gonzalez is primarily interested in studying the late stages of stellar evolution through the use of spectroscopic observations. Recent work includes spectroscopic abundance analysis of post-AGB supergiants and RV Tau variables. He has also undertaken a study of the parent stars of the recently discovered extra-solar planetary systems. The results indicate that these stars have anomalous chemical abundances, suggesting some sort of unusual formation history.

Home page, Iowa State University,

Faculty webpage, University of Washington Astronomy Department.

Discovery Institute,


Biography at The Privileged Planet website,

Webpage, Access Research Network,

International Society for Complexity, Information and Design,


Daniel Wayne Gorbet

(Born October 16, 1942).  Agronomist, geneticist, researcher.  Professor of Agronomy, University of Florida Agriculture Research Center, Marianna, FL, 1984-present.  Graduate research Assistant Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, 1965-70; from Assistant Professor to Professor agronomy University of Florida Agriculture Research Center, Marianna, 1970-1984. B.S., Agricultural Education, Texas A&I University, 1965; M.S., Crop Science,  Oklahoma State University, 1968, Ph.D., Plant Breeding and Genetics, 1971.

Member: American Society Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, American Peanut Research and Education Society, Florida Soil and Crop Science Society, American Phytopathological Society, American Genetics Association, CAST, Sigma Xi, Gamma Signma Delta, Member of Peanut Germplasm Committee, to advice USDA on peanut germplasm work, Member of Crop Science Society Committee for registration of peanuts (C852.09). Lutheran. Lodges: Elks, Lions.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.
Marquis Who's Who, 2004.

"Dr. Dan Gorbet (Agronomy/Peanut breeding) NFREC Marianna received an esteemed award November 3 in Salt Lake City. The American Society of Agronomy Fellow is the highest award given by American Society of Agronomy. Only .3% of the membership can be selected on a given year. This award is based on professional accomplishments and service to profession and American Society of Agronomy. Dr. Gorbet is the Past President and Fellow of American Peanut Research and Education Society. Congratulations, Dr. Gorbet!!"

Faculty webpage, University of Florida Agronomy Department,


Bruce L. Gordon *** Not in Gale
Physicist.  Scholar.  Bruce L. Gordon is the Acting Director of Baylor University's Program for Science, Philosophy and Religion, and an Assistant Research Professor in the Baylor Institute for Faith and Learning. In 1998 he completed his Ph.D. in the history and philosophy of physics under Arthur Fine in the Northwestern University Philosophy Department. Alvin Plantinga of the University of Notre Dame Philosophy Department was an external advisor on his committee. Additional degrees: 1990, Westminster Theological Seminary (Philadelphia), M.A.R., Apologetics/Systematic Theology;1988, University of Calgary, M.A., Philosophy; 1986, University of Calgary, B.Sc. (Honors), Applied Mathematics; 1982, Royal Conservatory of Music, University of Toronto, A.R.C.T., Piano Performance.

He was a postdoctoral Fellow in the Center for Philosophy of Religion at the University of Notre Dame before moving to Baylor University in the fall of 1999. Dr. Gordon's work ranges from an exploration of conceptual problems in quantum theory and relativity, to foundational and interpretational issues in the philosophy of science, metaphysics and philosophical theology, the interaction between science and religion, logic, epistemology, philosophical critiques of postmodernity, and general considerations of the relation between faith and scholarship. His present work focuses on questions of identity, individuation and modality in quantum statistics and quantum field theory, and the implications of this research for issues in philosophical theology and the metaphysics of free will.

Member: The American Philosophical Association (APA), The Philosophy of Science Association (PSA), The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), The American Physical Society (APS), The American Scientific Affiliation (ASA), The National Association of Scholars (NAS), The American Academy of Religion (AAR), The Society of Christian Philosophers (SCP), The Center for Science, Philosophy and Religion, Baylor University, Institute for Faith and Learning, Baylor University (IFL), InterVarsity Graduate and Faculty Ministries (IVCF).

Official home page:

Biographical sketch:

Curriculum vitae:


Gary D. Gordon / Gary Donald Gordon

(Born 1928).  Physicist.  Aerospace engineer.  Consultant, INTELSAT, Washington, 1984-92; Senior staff scientist, Communications Satellite Corp., Clarksburg, Maryland, 1969-83; administrator course development, RCA, Camden, N.J., 1964-68; Senior engineer, RCA, Princeton, N.J., 1958-64; Physicist, Ops. Research, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland, 1957-58.  Education: BA, Wesleyan University, 1950; MA, Harvard University, 1951; Ph.D., Harvard University, 1954.

Member: Associate Fellow AIAA (technician, Committee on space systems, 1974-75).

Award: Recipient 2d prize for physics demo apparatus American Association Physics Teachers, N.Y.C., 1963.

Co-author: Communications Satellite Handbook, 1989, Principles of Communications Satellites, 1993; Member editorial Board Comsat Tech. Review, 1971-74. Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Testimony in On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2002.  ISBN 0-89051-376-7.


Philip Henry Gosse

(1810-1888). English naturalist. Built first aquarium for long-term housing and display of marine life (1854); known also for study of rotifers. Author of Manual of Marine Zoology (1855-56),Actinologia Britannica (1858-60), Evenings at the Microscope (1859), Romance of Natural History (1860-62), Year at the Shore (1865), etc. In Omphalos: An Attempt to Untie the Geological Knot (1857, reprinted 1998), Gosse argued that the world had indeed been created by God in six days, but had made the earth to appear as though it was already ancient. This is known as the Omphalos hypothesis.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.

Biography in Green Eye of the Storm, by John Rendle-Short.  Banner of Truth, 1998. ISBN 0-8515-1727-7.


Stephen Bradford Gough

(Born September 13, 1950).  Biologist, environmental scientist, computer scientist, educator.  Research fellow department of botany University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1972-75, Teaching Assistant, 1975-76; Research Associate environmental sciences division, Oak Ridge National Lab., 1976-82; President, chief exec. officer Gough Enterprises, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Fredericksburg, Virginia, 1979; computer systems specialist, project leader System Devel. Corp., Fredericksburg, 1982-86; Senior software engineer, TRW Advanced Support Center, Training Center, Fredericksburg, 1986-87, Product Development Manager, 1987-92; Service Support Manager, 1992-93; Adjunct Faculty Member, Mary Washington College, Fredericksburg, 1990-93, Assistant Professor Biological sciences, 1993; Consultant microbiology, water quality, ecology, educational, technical, computer sciences, instrumentation; expert witness for Congress and government agencies.  Education: B.S. magna cum laude, Carroll College, 1972; Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1976.

Honors: NSF research grantee, 1971-72, DOE grantee, Nuclear Regulatory Commission grantee, EPA grantee, Electric Power Research Institute grantee, 1978-82; University of Wisconsin fellow, 1972-76; Beta Beta Beta Biology award, Chi Beta Phi Faculty award.

Member AAAS, American Institute Biological Sciences, Phycological Society America, Association for Computing Machinery, American Society Limnology and Oceanography, Inc., Association Educational Communications Tech., Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Sigma Xi, Delta Sigma Nu.  Presbyterian.

Author: (with Cushman, Moran and Craig). Sourcebook of Hydrologic and Ecological Features, 1980; Contributor of articles to science journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


D. B. Gower, BSc, Ph.D., DSc, CChem, FRSC, CBiol, FIBiol *** Not in Gale
English biochemist.  Emeritus Professor of Steroid Biochemistry, University of London.  B.S. in chemistry from the University of London, D.Sc. from the University of London, Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of London. Royal Society of Chemistry Fellow, Institute of Biology Fellow.

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Regnier de Graaf

(1641-1673).  Dutch physician and anatomist Regnier de Graaf was one of the pioneers of experimental physiology. His studies involving pancreatic fluids, and later, the male and female reproductive systems, were the precursor to modern reproductive endocrinology.  Author of works on the pancreatic juice and on the generative organs; discovered the Graafian follicles in the ovary.

The Galileo Project,


George Graham

(1673-1751). English mechanician. Partner and successor (1713) of Thomas Tompion; invented the mercurial pendulum, the deadbeat escapement; with Tompion built the first orrery; produced quadrants, zenith sectors, and other astronomical instruments.

The Galileo Project,


Neil Bonnette Graham, ALCM, CChem, FRSC, FIM, FRSE

(Born 1933).  Chartered chemist, England. Chemistry educator, consultant. Professor Emeritus (1997-present) in Chemical Technology, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland.  Co-Founder and C.E.O. Smart Tech Ltd 2000-present; Co-Founder and C.E.O. Ecoco Ltd 2000; Founder and Director, Polysystems Ltd., Clydebank, Scotland, 1980-90; Research Professor, University Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, 1983; Young Professor of Chemistry, University Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, 1973-83; Group head, Imperial Chemical Industries, Cheshire, England, 1967-73; Research chemist, Cen. Research Labs., McMasterville, Canada, 1956-67. Education: BS, University Liverpool, 1953; Ph.D., University Liverpool, 1956.

Member: Fellow Royal Society of Chemistry, Royal Society Edinburgh, Institute Materials.

Awards: Recipient Leblanc medal, Potts medal, University Liverpool, 1953, 75, Strathclyde Regional award Scottish Enterprise, Glasgow, 1981, Academy of Enterprise award British Tech. Group, London, 1982.

Member, Scot Board of Mission Aviation Fellowship (MAF) 2000-present; deacon, Bearsden Baptist Church 1998-present; Editorial Board Biomedical Materials. Contributor of articles to professional journals; holder of more than 70 patents in field.

Neil Bonnette Graham, Professor in Chemical Technology, Faculty webpage and publications, University of Strathclyde, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry,

Contact page:


Thomas Graham

(1805-1869). Scottish physical chemist who pioneered the chemistry of colloids, but who is best known for his studies of the diffusion of gases, the principal law concerning which is named for him (Graham's law of diffusion of gases, 1833).

 Professor, Andersonian University, Edinburgh (1803-37), University College, London (1837-55); master of the mint (1855-69).  Discovered and named the process of dialysis used for separating crystalloids from colloids; made study of the three forms of phosphoric acid that led to concept of polybasic acids; investigated water of hydration and alcoholates.  "The father of colloid chemistry."


Guido Grandi / originally Francesco Lodovico

(1671-1742). Italian mathematician. Professor, Pisa (from 1700); known for studies of conchoid, cissoid, and other curves; developed versiera, later known as "witch of Agnesi."

The Galileo Project,


John Graunt

(1620-1674). English statistician. Founder of the science of demography, the statistical study of human populations.  He analyzed the vital statistics of the citizens of London and wrote an influential volume on his findings.  His work influenced another noted pioneer in this field, Sir William Petty, as well as Edmond Halley, English astronomer and "discoverer" of the comet named for him.  Graunt prepared an original mortality table in his Natural and Political Observations ... made upon the Bills of Mortality (1662), a work which first established the uniformity and predictability of many important biological phenomena when taken in large numbers-- such things as the greater number of female babies, the longer lifespans of females, the high mortality among infants.  Graunt was an original member of the Royal Society, 1662-74. Council, 1664-6.

The Galileo Project,


Willem Jacob s' Gravesande

(1688-1742). Dutch mathematician and philosopher. Professor, Leiden (1717-42); friend of Sir Isaac Newton. Introduced Newtonian philosophy into Leiden with Physices elementa mathematica, experimentis confirmata (1720-21).


Asa Gray

(1810-1888).  Botanist.  Gray's career contributed significantly to the demise of the Linnaean system in the United States and the acceptance of the natural system; in this sense he helped revolutionize the research and teaching of botany. Theistic evolutionist.

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Clarence Cornelius Gray, III

(1917-2001).  International agronomist. Senior scientist, CCG Assocs., Fairfax, Virginia, 1989; Professor Emeritus, Virginia Poly. Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 1989; Professor International studies, Virginia Poly. Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 1983-88; Associate, Deputy, and acting Director Agricultural sciences, The Rockefeller Foundation, N.Y.C., 1970-83; reserve officer Foreign Service., U.S. AID, Washington, 1958-70; Assistant Professor then Associate Professor, Virginia State College, Petersburg, 1948-58.  Education: BS, Virginia State College, 1943; MS, Michigan State University, 1947; Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1952; LLD, Morehouse College, 1979; LLD, Virginia State University, 1982.

Member: Advisory council, N.Y. College Agriculture, Cornell University, Ithaca, 1976-82; member Virginia International Trade Commission, 1987, Sigma Xi, Gamma Sigma Delta; National Guardsmen Inc., Alpha Phi Alpha, Sigma Pi Phi.

Awards: Certificate of Merit Virginia State College 1978; Doctor of Laws Morehouse College 1979, Virginia State University 1982; The W Averell Harriman International Service Award International Center Albany 1981; Joseph C Wilson Award, 1990.

Editor: Crop Germplasm Conservation and Use in China, 1980; Strategies for Agricultural Education in Developing Countries, 1974; Contributor of articles to professional journals.


Stephen Gray

(1666-1736). English scientist. Experimented in microscopy; noted amateur astronomer; in late years experimented in static electricity; first to divide substances into electrics and nonelectrics, according as they can or can not be electrified by friction; discovered (1729-32) conduction of electrical charge and distinction between conductors and insulators.  He may have been educated, in part, by John Flamsteed (1646-1719), England's first Astronomer Royal. Gray published his experiments in the Philosophical Transactions, which influenced the work of Charles Du Fay (1698-1739) and John Theaophilus Desaguliers (1683-1744). Du Fay theorized the existence of "vitreous" and " resinous" electricity, terms that Benjamin Franklin popularized as "positive" and "negative."

The Galileo Project,


John Grebe *** Not in Gale

Chemist.  Former researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Reactor School and Engineering Team (1946-1947);  Former Director of the Dow Chemical Company Physical Chemistry Research Laboratories in Midland, Michigan; Served as Chief Scientist to the Army Chemical Corps at Edgewood Arsenal New Baltimore (1948-1949). A founder of the Creation Research Society. M.S. from Case Institute of Technology; Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Hillsdale College (1967); D.Sc. from Case Institute of Technology (1935) (Case is now part of Western Reserve University).

Honors: In 1943 became the youngest recipient ever to receive the Chemical Industry Medal.

Certificate of Merit from The Franklin Institute (1942).


Dr. W. Dale Greene*** Not in Gale

Forester.  Professor in Forest Resources, Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens. B.S.F. Louisiana State University, M.S. Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Ph.D. Auburn University.   

Member: Council on Forest Engineering, International Chairman, 1993; Georgia Forestry Association, Board Member since 1993, Treasurer 1994-2002; Forest Products Society; Society of American Foresters.

About Me: "I enjoy most things outdoors, particularly hunting, fishing (fresh and salt), and camping with my family. I serve as an adult volunteer with my son's Cub Scout Pack. My family enjoys following sports, particularly college football and baseball, Braves baseball, and NASCAR. We are involved in a number of ways at Athens First United Methodist Church ( where I help lead a Disciple Bible Study class and teach our 11th and 12th grade Sunday School class. I also participate in the UGA Christian Faculty Forum, a ministry of Campus Crusade for Christ."

Warnell School of Forest Resources,

Faculty of Engineering,


David Gregory / David Gregorie

(1659-1708). Scottish mathematician and astronomer. Nephew of James Gregory; Professor, Edinburgh (1683-91),  Savilian Professor of Astronomy, Oxford (1691-1708); expositor of Newtonian mechanics. Author of Treatise of Practical Geometry (1695), Catoptricae et dioptricae sphaericae elementa (1695), which describes telescopes; Astronomiae physicae & geometricae elementa (1702), an account of Newton's theories, etc.

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "David Gregory,"

At Edinburgh David Gregory taught Newtonian theories. He is famed for this since he was the first university teacher to teach the 'modern' theories at a time when even Cambridge was still teaching Greek natural philosophy. He also experimented with making an achromatic telescope.

"Gregory | David | 1659-1708 | professor of mathematics, University of Edinburgh, and Savilian Professor of Astronomy, University of Oxford,"

Papers of David Gregory, NAHSTE.


James Gregory / James Gregorie

(1638-1675).  Scottish mathematician and inventor. Professor, University of St. Andrews (1669-74), Edinburgh (1674-75); perfected earliest form of reflecting telescope, the Gregorian telescope, described in his Optica promota (1663); published Vera circuli et hyperbolae quadratura (1667) and Geometriae pars universalis (1668), demonstrating method of determining areas and volumes of geometrical figures; anticipated later discoveries in number theory and calculus.  James Gregory's work laid the foundation for the development of calculus, and his work in astronomy and optics for astronomical observations influenced the works of Isaac Newton. Lunar features Crater Gregory and Catena Gregory named in his honor.

Author: Geometriae pars universalis, inserviens quantitatum curvarum transumtationi & mensurae,1668; "An Account of a Controversy betwixt Stephano de Angelis and John Baptistat Riccioli," 1668 (Many of Gregory's papers were issued by the Royal Society of London in The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society); Exercitationes gemoetricae,1668.

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "James Gregory,"

"Gregory | James | 1638-1675 | professor of mathematics, St Andrews and Edinburgh,"

W. W. Rouse Ball. "James Gregory (1638 - 1675),"  From A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (4th edition, 1908).


Nehemiah Grew

(1641-1712). English botanist. A founder of plant anatomy; pioneer microscopist; first to hypothesize in print on sex in plants. Author of Anatomy of Vegetables Begun (1672), The Anatomy of Plants (1682).

The Galileo Project,


Dr. Arthur Grider *** Not in Gale

Food and nutricionist.  Associate Professor, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The University of Georgia. B.A., Hiram College, 1978; M.S., 1981, Ph.D., 1986 University of Cincinnati.

Faculty webpage,

Denise H. Horton.  "College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The University of Georgia Foods and nutrition professor's research gets down to the basics," Tuesday, January 18, 2000


Francesco M. Grimaldi, S.J. / Francesco Maria Grimaldi

Francesco Grimaldi (1618-1663) was an Italian physicist and Jesuit priest who is best known as the first person to describe the diffraction of light. Apart from his optical research, Grimaldi also conducted experiments on human physiology and made careful observations of the surface of the Moon.

The Galileo Project,

Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Dr. Dianne Grocott, MBBS, FRANZCP *** Not in Gale

Australian psychiatrist.  Dianne has an MBBS (1982) and gained Fellowship of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists in 1989. She has worked in Community Mental Health clinics, Psychiatric hospitals and General Hospitals in the fields of psychiatry and medical administration. She completed a course in Integrated Christian Counselling at Waverley Abbey in the UK in 1993.

More than 9 years of marriage to her husband Stephen Charles Grocott.


Stephen Charles Grocott

(Born 1957). Australian Inorganic and Industrial Chemist.  Branch manager, Business Development Division, Department of Industry and Resources, West Australia. General manager, Research and Development, Southern Pacific Petroleum.  Achievements include research on the impact, removal, chemistry and analysis of impurities in alumina refining.  Manager, Process Development, 1997; senior principal research scientist, Alcoa of Australia Ltd., WA, Australia, 1995-97; senior Consultant chemistry, Alcoa of Australia Ltd., WA, Australia, 1988-95; senior research chemist, Alcoa of Australia Ltd., WA, Australia, 1985-88; research chemist, Alcoa of Australia Ltd., WA, Australia, 1983-85; Development chemist, Alcoa of Australia Ltd., WA, Australia, 1981-83. Grocott has a B.Sc. with honours, 1978 and a Ph.D. (1981) from the University of Western Australia in the field of organometallic chemistry of optically active metal complexes.

Member: Fellow of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute, American Chemical Society, International Humic Substances Society, International Association of Colloid and Interface Scientists.  He has led research groups of up to 15 staff and controlled research budgets of several millions of dollars per year.  His work has entailed extensive international travel to lecture and consult and he has published ~30 papers and holds 4 patents in these fields.

Don Batten and Jonathan Sarfati.  "The creation couple: Interview with Stephen and Dianne Grocott,"

Testimony in In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, edited by John F. Ashton, Ph.D.  Master Books, Inc., Green Forest, AR, 2001.  ISBN 0-89051-341-4.


Robert Grosseteste

Robert Grosseteste (ca.1168-1253) greatly influenced English scientific thinking by directing the interests of Franciscans there toward natural philosophy and mathematics. Grosseteste (which means "of the large head") wrote some of the first commentaries on Aristotle's physical-science works and composed his own treatises on astronomy, cosmology, comets, motion, sound, heat, light, optics, and the rainbow. He is known for promoting the search for rational and consistent explanations that incorporate natural and divine evidence, and he was also was one of the first scholastic thinkers to try to reconcile the Bible and Church Fathers with the Aristotelian works that were then available in Latin. or

The Electronic Grosseteste.


Biography in Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, by Dan Graves.  Kregel Resources, Grand Rapids, MI, 1996.  ISBN 0-8254-2724-X.


Harry Hendrik Guetter

(Born 1935).

  Dutch-born astronomer. Research Associate David Dunlop Obs., Richmond Hill, Ontario, 1963-64; astronomer U.S. Naval Obs., Flagstaff, Ariz., 1964.  B.Sc. with honors in Physics and Mathematics, Queen's University, Canada, 1961; M.A. in Astronomy, University Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1963.

Member American Astron. Society, International Astron. Union, Astron. Society Pacific, Sigma Xi. Baptist.

Contributor of articles to professional journals.

Marquis Who's Who, 2004.


Guido [Vidus, Vidius] Guidi  *** Not in Gale

(1509-1569).  Italian-born anatomist, surgeon, physician.

The Galileo Project,

Guidi carried out important anatomical investigations at Pisa after 1548, recorded in a manuscript, Anatomia, which was composed around 1560. His name is attached to the canalis vidianus of the sphenoid bone and to the nerve that traverses this canal. He also made original studies of the mechanism of articulation in the human body resulting from its vertical position in relation to the mechanism of quadruped articulations.

Guidi was the author of a book on surgery that he translated from the Greek (of Hippocrates, Galen, and Oribasius--from a manuscript that Cardinal Ridolfi furnished to him) and to which he added a commentary of his own.

Guidi's Ars medicalis, in three volumes, was essentially complete at the time of Guidi's death; it was published finally in 1596.


[Winther von Andernach] Joannes Guinter *** Not in Gale

(c. 1505-1574).  German anatomist, physician.  Catholic, then Lutheran.  In1538, due to the pressure of religous orthodoxy he left France for Germany.

The Galileo Project,

Guinter wrote several works on medicine, but especially he was the translator of Galen (and some other lesser ones) into Latin.  He dedicated the following works: his translations of three books of Galen (1528) to the Count of Beaulieu; a book on medicine in 1528 to the Abbé de Saint-Marc; a translation of Galen (1530) to Francis I;  a translation of Galen (1533) to Poblation, physician to the Queen and professor of mathematics (sic) at the Collège royale; a translation of Galen (1534) to the Spanish aristocrat Rodrigue Manrique; a medical book (1549) to Archbishop Cranmer; a translation of Alexander de Tralles to the Landgrave William of Hesse.


Paul Guldin, S.J. / originally Habakkuk Guldin

(1577-1643). Swiss mathematician. Entered Jesuit order (1597); taught in Jesuit colleges in Rome, Graz; professor, Vienna. Author of treatises defending Gregorian calendar, on centers of gravity, etc.  The work of Guldin is covered in four separate volumes which he published during his life, they are entitled De Centro Gravitas (1635-41).  Volume one considers centres of gravity with particular reference to the centre of gravity of the Earth. The second volume contains what is now known as Guldin's second rule or Guldin's theorem. Volume three considers cones and cylinders.

The Galileo Project,

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson.  "Paul Guldin,"


Edmund Gunter

(1581-1626). English mathematician. Professor of astronomy, Gresham College, London (1619-26); invented the chain, line, quadrant, and scale known by his name; introduced terms cosine and cotangent in his Canon triangulorum (1620).  Gunter manufactured and used a precursor of the slide rule, called the Gunter scale. Gunter also invented a device called Gunter's chain which was used for surveying.  After his ordination Gunter became the rector of St George's Church, in Southwark, London. He retained this position until his death aged 45 in 1626. From 1619 until 1626 Gunter was also the Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College, London. In 1623 Gunter published New Projection of the Sphere which looked at navigation and the magnetic effects of the Earth thereon. He studied magnetic declination and was the first to observe the secular variation.  In 1624 Gunter published a book on a number of sundials he had installed in Whitehall, this was at the direct request of the future Charles I.

The Galileo Project,


Johann Gutenberg / Johannes Gutenberg / Johann Gensfleischzur / Laden Zum Gutenberg

The German inventor and printer Johann Gutenberg (ca. 1398-1468) was the inventor of movable-type mechanical printing in Europe and ushered in the beginning of mass communication in fifteenth century Europe. Famous for 42-line Bible.  "No other event in the history of humans has influenced them more that the invention of the printing press constructed by Gutenberg. The ways in which the printing press affected the growth and development of the human race are almost too numerable to count."

Gutenberg homepage, (in German);


Online Exhibition, Johann Gutenberg,

The Gutenberg Bible.

Use the guide links below according to scientist last name.

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P-Q][R] [S] [T] [U-V][W] [X, Y, Z]